- Organisms must get oxygen and nutrients to the cells and into their cells.
- They must also get wastes (co2) away from the body and out of the cells.
- Adaptations will allow organisms to perform these life functions using their environment to their best advantage.
Diffusion across the cell membrane. Soluble material moves from high to low concentration with no energy spent. This is how organisms get things into and out of the cell.
Remember the difference between active transport and diffusion?
Transport for Dummies
- Contractile vacuole for osmoregulation. The control of osmosis, the diffusion of water, into the cell.
- Water is the vehicle for transport
- Similar to protists but have no contractile vacuoles for osmoregulation
- 100% of it's cells are in contact with their environment.
- Earthworms have a closed circulatory system with aortic arches for pumping blood. Like a primative heart.
- Blood has hemoglobin to enhance oxygen carrying capacity
- They are the most like the Human circulatory system.
- Grasshoppers have and open circulatory system with only a dorsal blood vessel.
- Not very efficient. Blood does not carry oxygen and co2
- Pulmonary Circulatory Route Test
- Closed Circulatory System---Always moves blood away from the heart
- Drops off stuff to cells and picks up stuff from cells
- always moves blood towards the heart
- Red Blood Cells
- Hemoglobin: Carries oxygen
- Blood Types ABO system
- Animated Blood Types
- White Blood Cells
- Immune Response
- White blood cells are the "police" of the blood.
- "B" cells produce antibodies as a defense against invaders called antigens.
- Antibody Info
- they are specific for their antigens just as enzymes are specific for substrates
- If your WBC's make them it is called active immunity. This occurs after exposure to the antigen
- Memory cells will be programmed to make the antibodies and activated when exposed (infected) by the antigen
- This is called active immunity. When you receive antibodies from another organism, it is called passive immunity
- An example would be a baby getting antibodies from mother's milk. Also getting a gamma globulin shot from a doctor
- Stuff about Antibodies
- Vaccines are weakened forms of an antigen that stimulate this type of active immunity.
Plants Have Vascular Tissue
Study Games Drop and Drag
- Xylem that will move inorganic material (water & minerals) UP the plant.
Xylem are dead left over cell walls that cannot carry on life functions.
- Phloem that carries organic material, glucose, generally DOWN the plant.
Phloem is alive and can carry on active transport.
Open Ended Questions
- Name two blood vessel that carry oxygen rich blood (be specific as to the name of the artery or vein)
- Name two blood vessels that carry oxygen poor blood. Be specific as to the specific name of the artery or vein
- Describe what happens to heart rate when carbon dioxide levels rise in the blood. When will the heart rate return to normal?
- State two different ways white blood cells help to defend our bodies against the introduction of foreign antigens.
- Using one or more complete sentences, describe a change which might occur within our bodies to increase our numbers of white blood cells.
- How does a measles vaccine protect a child entering school against the measles? Write one or more paragraphs explaining this. Include discussion of the terms antibody, antigen, immune response, pathogen, primary immune response, and secondary immune response (memory) in your explanation.